Τρίτη, 8 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Η Διαλεκτική των πάντων (Συνεδριακό κέντρο της Διεθνούς Ολυμπιακής Ακαδημίας, Αρχαία Ολυμπία )

Η ΜΑΡΙΑ ΣΙΔΕΡΗ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΕΘΝΕΣ ΣΥΝΕΔΡΙΟ Η ΑΡΧΑΙΑ ΕΛΛΑΔΑ ΚΑΙ Ο ΣΥΓΧΡΟΝΟΣ ΚΟΣΜΟΣ

 Η επίδραση της αρχαίας ελληνικής σκέψης πάνω στη φιλοσοφία, την επιστήμη και την τεχνολογία Συνεδριακό κέντρο της Διεθνούς Ολυμπιακής Ακαδημίας Αρχαία Ολυμπία, 28-31 Αυγούστου 2016

 ΥΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΑΙΓΙΔΑ ΤΗΣ Α.Ε. ΤΟΥ ΠΡΟΕΔΡΟΥ ΤΗΣ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΥ ΠΡΟΚΟΠΙΟΥ ΠΑΥΛΟΠΟΥΛΟΥ

 ΟΡΓΑΝΩΤΙΚΟΣ ΦΟΡΕΑΣ: ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ

 Το Συνέδριο, αφετηρία ίδρυσης Διεθνούς Κέντρου Επιστημών & Ελληνικών Αξιών, έλαβε χώρα στο Συνεδριακό Κέντρο της Διεθνούς Ολυμπιακής Ακαδημίας. Οργανωτικός Φορέας του Συνεδρίου ήταν το Πανεπιστήμιο Πατρών με την ευγενική σύμπραξη και συνεργασία της Ένωσης Ελλήνων Φυσικών, της Ελληνικής Μαθηματικής Εταιρείας, της Εταιρείας Μελέτης Αρχαίας Ελληνικής Μυθολογίας, σε συνδιοργάνωση με τον Δήμο Ήλιδας, τον Δήμο Αρχαίας Ολυμπίας και την Περιφέρεια Δυτικής Ελλάδας. Οι προσκεκλημένοι Έλληνες και ξένοι εισηγητές ανέπτυξαν θέματα σχετικά με την Φιλοσοφία, την Επιστήμη, την Τεχνολογία και τον εν γένει Πολιτισμό του Αρχαίου Ελληνικού Κόσμου. Η Μαρία Σίδερη, προσκεκλημένη από το Πανεπιστήμιο Πατρών ανέπτυξε το θέμα: Η Ορφική Κοσμογονική Θεωρία- Η Διαλεκτική των Πάντων.

 Ακολουθεί η περίληψη της εισηγήσεως της Μαρίας Σίδερη στην Ελληνική και Αγγλική (επίσημες γλώσσες του Συνεδρίου). Το πλήρες κείμενο της εισηγήσεως της Μαρίας Σίδερη θα δημοσιευθεί στην ειδική διεθνή έκδοση των Πρακτικών του Συνεδρίου μαζί με τις εισηγήσεις και των λοιπών Εισηγητών.



 Η ΟΡΦΙΚΗ ΚΟΣΜΟΓΟΝΙΚΗ ΘΕΩΡΙΑ 

 Η Διαλεκτική των πάντων 

 Ο σύγχρονος κόσμος αναφέρεται πληθωρικά στο αρχαίο Ελληνικό υπόδειγμα αλλά είναι αμφίβολο πόσον οι επιδράσεις του δεύτερου στον πρώτο μπορούν να είναι αληθείς-πραγματικές.

 Πάντως είναι εντυπωσιακά ισχνές οι ρητές αναδρομές στην αρχαία Ελληνική φυσική θεωρία, ιδίως δε στην πρωτοπαγή Κοσμογονία που εξέθεσε ο Ορφεύς και διασώθηκε ως τις μέρες μας σε εξαιρετική αρτιότητα, επαναγόμενη συστηματικά από τους σοφούς του αρχαίου αλλά και του χριστιανικού Ελληνικού Κόσμου.

Πρόκειται για μιά πρότυπης διαλεκτικής μεθοδικότητας επιστήμη της μεταβάσεως από το «Μη Όν» -προοντολογικό, σφαιροειδές, άπειρης έκτασης και μηδενικής μάζας εντελές Έν ή Άρρητον Αρχή στον Κόσμο του Είναι/Γίγνεσθαι της πολυπλοκότητας, των συνεχών αλλοιώσεων, της Ζωής και του Θανάτου, των ποικίλων μεταμφοτερισμών- στον Κόσμο των Αισθητών, της ύλης ως δεσπόζοντος δεδομένου του πολυσυμπαντικού χώρου.

Το Έν έχει αυτόματη και απόλυτη συνείδηση εαυτού, τα δε «μέρη» του διακρίνονται μόνον ως ασυνεχείς συλλειτουργίες: Νους, Νόηση, Λόγος.

 Αποσπασματικά παρατίθενται κάποια θεμελειώδη αξιώματα:

 1. O ΧΡΟΝΟΣ α) Προϋπήρχε ως υποτυπώδης εκδήλωση της «αρχής και πηγής κάθε κινήσεως δηλαδή της ψυχής», Χρόνος –σημείο ως στοιχείο του Ενός. Όταν το Έν αποφασίζει, αφήνει να εκπηγάσουν δύο δυναμικά πεδία-Νόμοι που προσημαίνουν την γένεση των κυρίων παραγόντων της όλης διαδικασίας του Γίγνεσθαι. Μπορούν να ονομασθούν «ουσίες» μόνον κατά τους Αριστοτελικούς ορισμούς και την Αρχή «Ύλη-Γη» (φύσει «μεριστήν») και την Αρχή «Ύδωρ» (φύσει «κολλητικόν και συνεκτικόν»). Η ένωση- αλληλοδιείσδυση/ αλληλεπίδραση των δύο Αρχών γεννά τον Χρόνο ως άπειρη έκταση, δύναμη αδέσμευτη και ενεργή, γονιμική, ως κομιστή των μελλοντικών όρων του Πραγματικού Κόσμου και ως έλλογο Νου. Ο απόλυτος αυτός Χρόνος ονομάστηκε Αγήραος και Ηρακλής. Η υποστασιακή του ποιότητα εκδηλώνεται με συγκέντρωση και οργάνωση της ουσίας του: έχει είδος- μορφή και κίνηση συνημιτονοειδή.

2. Η ΓΕΝΕΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΧΩΡΟΥ α) Ο Χρόνος, χάρη στην ενέργεια της κινήσεως, μετατρέπει τις δύο γενέθλιές του προοντολογικές Αρχές – εσχάτους λόγους των ουσιαστικών ειδών- σε ουσίες πραγματικές, αναλόγων και εντατικοτέρων ιδιοτήτων. Η «Ύλη – Γη» μεταστοιχειώνεται σε «δυνάμει» ή «αρνητική» ύλη, και αποδίδεται, σε ελεύθερες συνθήκες, ως πεδίο του Χάους: «άπειρον» (δίχως πέρατα), «άνειδον» (δίχως μορφολογικές δομές). Είναι το «παλλόμενον πλαίσιον» που προσομοιάζει στο ενδοσυμπαντικό «στατικό πεδίο του κενού». Αλληγορείται ως «πέλαγος». Το «Ύδωρ» αποδίδει τον εξ αρχής εντελή, κατά την υποστασιακή του υφή, Αιθέρα. Ομοιάζει πρός τον «πρωταρχικό ενεργειακό Ωκεανό» ή «Ποταμό». «Κολλητικός και συνεκτικός» αλλά και «εύφλεκτος» (αίθω: ανάπτω, λάμπω κ.τ.ό), «πέρας», «πεμπτουσία» κλπ - αυτά είναι μερικά από τα χαρακτηριστικά του.
β) Η ισχυρή αλληλεπίδραση Αιθέρος – Χάους, συν οι έμφυτες τάσεις της ύλης, προκαλούν την πρώτη έντονη βαρυτική δυναμική δραστηριότητα στο «Πέλαγος». Εμφανίζεται η πρώτη κανονική και διαρκής μορφή, ως σπείρα που αναπτύσσεται σε κωνική, ανάστροφη (καθοδικής κατεύθυνσης) « Ίλιγγα» ή «Χωνίον». Η όλη αναφορά στην Κοσμογονική Ίλιγγα παραπέμπει αυτομάτως στις περιγραφές των μελανών οπών και επειδή: ό,τι προσελκύεται στο εσωτερικό της (μίγμα χαοτικών «ριζωμάτων» και Αιθέρος), κατά την κάθοδό της στο πεδίο «Πέλαγος» προσκρούει σε ένα νέο πεδίο- πυθμένα- μιάς άλλης ουσίας: του Πνεύματος, που λέγεται «ισχυρότατον», «θερμόν» και «κριτικόν». Αυτό το πεδίο παρεμποδίζει την Ίλιγγα να εισχωρήσει περαιτέρω σε βάθος, αλλά και την εξωθεί να εξεμέσει το περιεχόμενό της στο οποίο προστίθεται – προσελκύεται- και το Πνεύμα προσδίδοντας «σύσταση κριτική» (λογική, ειδητική) στα στοιχεία του μίγματος. (Ο πρωτοπαγής Αιθήρ προσδίδει απλώς μάζα).
 γ) ‘Ο, τι εξεμείται πάνω από τη στάθμη επιφανείας του Χαοτικού Πεδίου είναι ήδη, κατά τις διαδικασίες στο κέντρο της χοάνης, θετικοποιημένο φορτίο ύλης- ενέργειας. Εξερχόμενο, καμπυλούται σε τέλειο σφαιροειδές σχήμα διαστελλόμενο. Πρόκειται για το Ορφικόν Ωόν. Ενώ κάθεται στην επιφάνεια του Χάους – απ΄όπου αντλεί συνεχώς κινητικότητα και ορμή περιστροφής-, υψώνεται στο φάσμα του Αιθέρος. «Ο Χρόνος έτευξε με τον θείο Αιθέρα Ωόν αργύφεον (αργυροϋφασμένο)». Είναι ο Χώρος, όπου θα ιδρυθούν τα σύμπαντα του Αισθητού Κόσμου. Ο Αιθήρ σε συνθήκες οριοθετημένου χώρου σταθεροποιείται, γίνεται η κοινή συμπαντική μεμβράνη, που προσαρμόζεται σε κάθε κατάσταση της ύλης, γενόμενος και φορέας κανονικής δραστηριότητος των ενεργειών.

3. Ο ΚΟΣΜΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΝΟΕΡΩΝ – ΤΟ ΦΩΣ α) Το Ωόν, κατ΄αρχάς, είναι έμπλεον ελεύθερης, ψυχρής, ακτινοβολίας, αλλά στο κέντρο του, εν καιρώ, σχηματίζεται ένας υπέρθερμος πυρήνας αιθέρος- θετικής ύλης διαποτιζόμενος από το Πνεύμα.
 β) Καθώς ο πυρήνας διαστέλλεται η θερμότητα αυξάνει και υπερβαίνει κάποτε την ανοχή του οριοθετημένου χώρου. Η σφαίρα σχάται (ραγίζει). Η υπερβάλλουσα θερμότητα απελευθερώνεται: Φως έμπυρο και Πνεύμα ολοποιούνται σε έναν νέο, ενδιάμεσο των Νοητών και των Αισθητών, Κόσμο. Τον Κόσμο των Νοερών Όντων και, ιδίως, του φωτός, όμοιου πρός το ηλιακό, αλλά διάχυτου και καθολικά ομοιοστατικής θερμοκρασίας.
γ) Ορίζεται ότι ο πυρήνας του Ωού είναι το λίκνο- μήτρα κυοφορίας του «Πρωτογόνου Θεού» που είναι ο Φάνης (Φως), Μήτις (Νόησις), Ηρικεπαίος (Έρως, Ζωής), που φέρει στην παρουσία «το φως το προειρημμένον». Το σώμα του είναι η πηγή εκπορεύσεως του πρώτου εφεστίου φωτός, σταθερής εκπομπής, της κοινής ριζικής ουσίας των όντων, από τις μεταβολές του οποίου προέρχονται εφεξής οι ενέργειες της ισορροπίας/ αρμονικής ρύθμισης και θετικής εξέλιξης των πάντων, καθώς και η ίδια η ύλη. Οι Ήλιοι των Αισθητών Συμπάντων είναι ένυλα είδη- πραγματώσεις- στο βασίλειο των πραγματικών συνθηκών Εκείνου, του Φάνητος, που είναι άρρηκτα συνδεδεμένος ως Υιός και «σύζυγος» της Νυκτός – Νοήσεως και πρωτόλειας ύλης. Και το Φως, η απόλυτη συνθήκη της ύπαρξης, φερόμενο από τον Αιθέρα, είναι βεβαίωση της ιδανικής των πραγμάτων προέλευσης στην οποία οφείλουμε να προσβλέπουμε και να την υπερασπιζόμαστε. Ίσως αυτή να είναι και η αναγκαιοτάτη απο τις επιδράσεις που χρειάζεται να αναδεχθεί ο σύγχρονος Κόσμος από την Αρχαία Ελλάδα.

 Μαρία Σίδερη

 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
“ANCIENT GREECE AND THE MODERN WORLD”
UNIVERSITY OF PATRAS- GREECE
The Influence of Greek Thought on Philosophy, Science and Technology
Conference Centre, International Olympic Academy
Ancient Olympia (Archaeological Site), Greece, 28-31 August 2016

                               THE ORPHIC COSMOGONIC THEORY
                                              DIALECTIC OF ALL
  Maria Sideri, writer- independent researcher

SUMMARY
The ancient Greece, paradigm of the modern world, is defined by the Orphic Cosmology- Ontology, a science of a dialectic methodology.
Some of its axioms are:
·        The preontologic spheroid Principle “EN” (One), immaterial, contained the Chronos-point; Psyche (Soul).
·        The “EN” releases two dynamic Laws, presuppositions of the                      “ΓΙΓΝΕΣΘΑΙ (evolution process): The Principle “ΥΛΗ- ΓΗ (Matter- Earth), cause of division, and the Principle “ΥΔΩΡ (water) cause of synthesis.
·        The interaction of the two Principles generates the infinite ΧΡΟΝΟΣ (Chronos= Time), active force of Reality’s foundation.
·        The Chronos transforms inside him the “Matter- Earth’’ into potential matter- Chaos and the “Water into Aether i.e. pure matter-energy.
·        Mutually penetrated, Aether and Chaos provoke a strong gravitational activity, causing the first material creation of forms:  the cone (vortex) “ΙΛΙΓΞ (Iligx- whirlpool) corresponding to the “black holes.
·        The mixture of chaotic “roots- Aether, inside the Iligx, strikes the background field of “ΠΝΕΥΜΑ (Spirit).
·        The Spirit, is drawn into the mixture recomposing the elements and forcing the Iligx to eject its positively charged content, which is now transformed to an expanding sphere raising to the Aether and pumping spin from the Chaos.
·        That is the Orphic “ΩΟΝ (Egg), the real Space. The Aether inside the ‘’ΩΟΝ’’ is stabilized as a common membrane- fifth element, adapted to every tendency/ state of the matter, carrying the released in Space energies.
·        Inside the full of radiation “ΩΟΝ” (Egg), is formed a hot core of Aether and Spirit, i.e. real matter. As this hot core is growing, the “ΩΟΝ is overheated beyond its resistance’s limits, is fissured spawning flaming Light and Spirit merging to the World of Ideas and every enlightened value between the “EN” (Οne) and the reconstituted “ΩΟΝ” (Egg), drawing now from its offspring the fundamental existential conditions.


 INTRODUCTION
What preceded the Perceivable (Physical) World? What interfered as a procedure of the space-time, the multiverse’s Genesis? Which were the first steps and which the various transitions that led to its actual, relatively, stable state?
What could be the causes and laws that provoked its Creation? Were these reasons and foundations nothing but random, or on the contrary, conscious and above any experimental approach?
What is the deep nature of matter, force and energy?
The introductive part of the very ancient Greek (Orphic) Theology; The Cosmogony [[i]] answers to these -amongst others- inexhaustible questions, using strong, continuous, proportionate, of open systematic scale syllogisms, but also understanding its incompleteness, through the path of the widely praised Dialectic process.
In the following text will be exposed the Orphic Cosmogony's main theses, as they are composed into Otto Kern’s “FRAGMENTA ORPHICORUM’’ collection- especially those found in the Greek edition's first volume [[ii]].
Other philosophers’ words will also be quoted to reinforce and denote the orphic ones and the continuity, on common grounds, of the entire Greek Cosmologic Philosophy, starting from its first specified source.
However, as it is widely admitted, Orpheus was not literally the first theologian. He couldn’t have been ‘’inspired’’ this truly astonishingly wise theory, bearing his name, whilst living in a world of ignorance. What he in fact did, was to interpret, complete and spread his theory beyond the boundaries of the royal/ prelatic mysteries, in which he took part as a member of the prime-royal class.

The “En” (One). The First inconceivable (ΝΟΗΤΗ) Duality
‘’Let’s realize that the En is the Primal Principle” [[iii]] which ‘’is the Principle of everything filling up with light all the inconceivable Worlds as well the Worlds under them’’.
The Orphic Theology - according to Hieronymus and Hellanicus- indicates: “in the beginning there were Hydor (ΥΔΩΡ=water) and Yle (=matter or “Ylis”-ΥΛΙΣ=mud), from which earth was coagulated; the Yle-Matter  as by its nature, is capable of dispersion, and the Hydor-Watter, as providing coherence and connection for material elements, is left unexpressed, its very silence being an intimation of its ineffable nature” [[iv]].
The Orphic Cosmogony begins by referring to the highest first scale of Cosmogony, the one that “future followers of Orpheus” (Hesiod, Homer etc.) never mention. There are many amongst them who consider it as the absolute basis, using various names to define it as it is mentioned in the ‘’Orphicorum Fragmenta’’ – Otto Kern collection. It is called “Unutterable Principle” (ΑΡΡΗΤΟΣ ΑΡΧΗ), “the looking like unity”, ‘’Inconceivable Intellect” (the first Intellect-ΝΟΥΣ).
On Pelasgian inscriptions the word means amongst others: 1) ‘’It”, 2) One, Overlord /Master, 3) divinity. As for the imposed silence, it proves the rejection of public narrations about it. It was an ordinance/ rule equivalent of the sacred “unspoken” and the legislated secrecy surrounding the ancient Greek mysteries.
The “ineffable- Unutterable (ΑΡΡΗΤΟΝ) and inconceivable” of the first causes [[v]] is originally named “En /One” in the Orphic Sacred Words. For instance: “…the Gods… exist …. within the En” [[vi]], and “the primordial principle, called En and entirely good” by ancient theologians, after which follows the mystic duality, superior of all ontological systems [[vii]].
In Greek consideration, the notion of absence is inexistent; zero, emptiness and everything related to narrow, self-referential systems is rejected. Therefore, despite all theoretical restrictions, a lot has been in fact said about the En and its properties. It is proclaimed perfect.
All ancient theologians and natural philosophers believe, without exception, that everything is born except the First Cause which is unequivocally unborn, self-existent [[viii]].
This perfection is exalted especially via ‘’Kallos’’ (ΚΑΛΛΟΣ =Beauty), which is attributed to the En as its basic sort quality:
“And so, Orpheus said that Phanes (ΦΑΝΗΣ)[ix] can be conceived by our intellect. So, as Beauty pre-existed of Phanes in the first inconceivable (ΝΟΗΤΑ) beings as relevance and continuity of them, he called him Beauteous God.  Because he was the first to be endowed with secret ineffable beauty” [[x]].
Shape consists of the aesthetic manifestation of the content as well as of one of the attribute of form through which the being is identified.
Τhe Sphere is an ideal form to conceive the otherwise inconceivable En. “The sphere is the shape corresponding to the Creator God, (Zeus) because that shape has very ancient nature too within the secret Cosmos’’ [[xi]].
The Sphere is considered as the icon of the highest of values such as: Justice, Truth (Parmenides), Friendship (Empedocles), but also as the Absolut Being.
According to the authentic Orphic theology, the En corresponds partially to the Parmenidian vision as unchangeable content/ substance, wherever, and if, no alterations and events occur.
Before we proceed, it is important to keep in mind the following rule: “we should not isolate any inconceivable part from the rest but accept that their union is unbreakable” [[xii]].
For the sake of practical approaches, we understand that the first inconceivable duality has emanated from the Unexpressed- Unutterable Principle (ΑΡΡΗΤΟΣ ΑΡΧΗ), which is the starting point of the evolution process (ΓΙΓΝΕΣΘΑΙ-Gignesthae).
The En is not empty. However, its mass should be considered null without any properties of the energetic matter.
Its texture is presented as follows: ‘’The Light, revealed by Chronos (time), […….] consists of the purest face of the inconceivable principles; the Sun offers the light as a manifestation of the Truth, revealing at the same time the inconceivable Worlds … ‘’ [[xiii]]
           The light, the main expression of energies, is also the dominant element of the spheroid En. We know [[xiv]]that gravitational forces attract energy as well. The light’s positively curved deflection being a perfect example.
One Orphic thesis states that the content of En consists of different/dissimilar forces:
“So, this otherness is not without substance either, but it is understood that it exists within the En[….] in the world of inconceivable. Originated from the En it advances and divides itself into material unities [[xv]]
The pre-existing difference manifests itself when the En opens, as contrast of divisible and continuous force, pre-signifying the genesis of real matter-energy. The distant origin of “our” similar systems is implied by the immaterial nature of gravity (amongst others), as undetectable, zero mass waves, moving at the speed of light. This is a reminder that anything concrete corresponds to a partly transmuted abstract: “Nature loves to hide” as said Heraclitus or “beings are nothing but force” (Plato).
 Aristotle distinguishes the Being in three evolutionary grades of substance and matter: “potential”, “energetic”, “perfected”. Substance (Ousia) is not subject to the usual birth and decline/degeneration process. It is defined as that, which was ‘’a priori’’ possible to exist. Despite its transcendent substance compared to the phenomena, when the substance is studied, it leads, through subtraction, to the final analysis of the latter. The last and beyond time result is their substance, the predominant Cause.
These three phases of the being, - “potential”, “energetic”, “perfected”- can be associated in a restrictive way, with the current characterizations of matter (“potential”, “real”) and in a wider approach with “energy”.
The force is the cause of movement and change, namely of energy. Consequently, it is equivalent to the ‘’Being existing because of the energy’’ (ενεργείαι ον) of the Aristotle’s scale, or ‘’shape full of matter’’ (ένυλον είδος). Putting aside philosophers such as Democritus, Anaximander or Anaxagoras and their opinions about size, mass or transitions of matter, we arrive at the modern discovery of wave-particles without mass: photons and gravitons. Therefore, the orphic axiom according to which some material ‘’principle’’ dominates the En s content, is confirmed into the physical world as well. This ‘’principle’’ is called Nyx (Night). 
The ancient Greek thinking rejects both the notions of null and “space less”. The En exists in a familiar environment, which proves that despite its indestructible nature, it is not literally “unborn”/ without beginning (a term evoking Parmenides). The ontology of the positiveness cancels the hermetical separations of all sorts of levels through the dialectic enantiodromia: “interaction between opposite tendencies” (Democritus). For instance, it is mentioned: “Indeed, we conclude that the heavenly space and the colorless, shapeless and unapproachable substance, and every inconceivable large space (width) [….] contains the inconceivable entities as well the eternal Principle, the En” [[xvi]].
The description of a width containing the En itself fits to Nyx ( ΝΥΞ= night), former entity of the Chaos which has been created after the Inconceivable Beings.
Orpheus said that ‘’ [….] from both sides of Aether there was Chaos and dark Nyx (Night) that possesses everything […]’’ meaning that Nyx precedes everything else. In the same extract is mentioned that something no comprehensive preexisted even before the Nyx. Therefore, the Nyx comes after the En. Anyhow the environment of Nyx resembles to the En. Consequently, whatever gave birth to the En remained as its non-altered environment, and whatever was received into the sphere was transmuted according to the defined space’s conditions into Nyx.
Manifestation of Noesis (ΝΟΗΣΙΣ =Intellect)
“After the inconceivable (ΝΟΗΤΗ) and indivisible unity, it became necessary to distinguish all those that appeared apart from the En. This distinction was made by “Arithmos” (ΑΡΙΘΜΟΣ =Number) […….]and the  female notion precedes the inconceivable  [….] [[xvii]].
Plato repeats Orpheus words: “The concise divination of Nyx is the centre of each true science [[xviii]].
The simple pre-existing difference (ΕΤΕΡΟΤΗΣ) is also expressed through “abstract” values, such as “The Hours of Nyx [….] The first foresees and foretells –a characteristic of Science. The second is called Sophrosyne (ΣΩΦΡΟΣΥΝΗ =wisdom- prudence). The third brings Justice into our world….” [[xix]].
The above show the main property of Nyx: It is the Intellect (ΝΟΗΣΙΣ). Later, it will express itself as Metis (ΜΗΤΙΣ= wisdom, judgment, intelligence…)- female part of the First-born God (ΠΡΩΤΟΓΟΝΟΣ), Zeus’ embodiment, Titanis (feminine of the word TITAN). The Cosmic consciousness- providence comes back today through most of the physic theories (in opposition with the biological sciences)
Nyx is also genuine in the world, as invisible Nature-Eimarmeni (ΦΥΣΙΣ- ΕΙΜΑΡΜΕΝΗ) secret, undefeated: “[….] the substance cause of beings, or Logos according to whom the world evolves” [[xx]]
The pair ‘’ Matter-Earth’’- ‘’Water” (ΥΛΗ-ΓΗ/ ΥΔΩΡ), the first “clear distinction”, attracts the Soul- ‘’Anagae’’ (ΑΝΑΓΚΗ =necessity), the Persuasion (Spirit) and the Logos. The transcendent soul is simple: pure will, the absolute “Wille” of Schopenhauer. This corresponds to the urge and capability of life, conditions that activate all Laws.
The Soul (ΨΥΧΗ) and the Spirit (ΠΝΕΥΜΑ) nest mostly within Matter (ΥΛΗ), while the Water (ΥΔΩΡ) relates ‘’by nature’’ to Logos- Shape. Their interaction gives birth to Chronos (ΧΡΟΝΟΣ =Time), born before space.
From this pair- perfect contrast will be composited and born one of two ontological monsters; The Chronos (ΧΡΟΝΟΣ). The distinction between space and “something else” containing unqualified matter is mentioned in the Orphic Words: “Chaos [….] is not a place but a huge chasm” [[xxi]].
 Chronos before space is called by convention “Un-ageing” and “Hercules”. That means:
1)     Unattached to body-wise real matter. According to the above Chronos- ‘’point’’ pre-existed within the En. The afore mentioned discontinuity in there, suggests that Chronos is in the Centre of the Sphere.
2)     “Hercules” because he wants and acts to satisfy the Soul’s and Matter’s will.
The ‘’Chronos- Point’’ in the Orphic Cosmogony concludes that: the “both sides spinning” Anangae- (ΑΝΑΓΚΗ =Necessity) and the “whole-uncuttable-  non-divisible” Adrastia (ΑΔΡΑΣΤΙΑ means inevitable, another name of Nemesis) are considered of the same origin as Chronos. Necessity shows a restrained but intense motional activity: ‘’ all mighty Necessity binds the En with strong ties” [[xxii]], and: ‘’This Cosmos in its origin was generated as a compound, from the combination of Anangae- (ΑΝΑΓΚΗ - Necessity) and Nous (ΝΟΥΣ- Mind). And since Mind was controlling Necessity by persuading her to conduct to the best end, the most part of the things were coming into existence, thus and thereby it came about through Necessity yielding to intelligent persuasion [[xxiii]].
The word ‘’Anagae’’ coming from the past tens of the verb ‘’to bring’’ (ΦΕΡΩ) holds the” spindle”, stretched, through which the spheres spin [[xxiv]].
‘’Adrastia’’ seems immobile, overstretched, and tangent to all points of the sphere: a repulsive/ expansive force, opposite to Necessity, identical to Spirit/Persuasion.
The ‘’Chronos-point’’ reveals the Soul within the intact En: “beginning and cause of every movement” (Plato).
Nyx (Night) and Yle (Matter)
The first referred differentiation of Nyx takes place when (infinite) part of her (infinite) “quantity” derives from the En as duality (Matter-Earth) or as Ylis (mud). Since the first Inconceivable Duality raises to the semantic of the metaphysical character of the ‘’substance’’, e.g. the ‘’eternity’’ or ‘’the a priori determination of the being’’ to understand the ‘’nature’’ (quality) and ‘’action’’ of Nyx, it is important to relate Nyx to Chaos, with which it seems to have a positive correlation to the Aether.
The main attributes of these two Principles are the same:
Chaos is a field of birth of forms...it has no limit, no bottom or place (room) […] dense darkness [.…] is there […] that is why Orpheus concludes that matter (Chaos is “potential” matter) was produced by the First Entity of Inconceivable Beings that is the Nyx. Because there, abundant darkness and lack of limits rule […] these characteristics which are more evident in Nyx than in her derivative states’’[[xxv]].
Chaos is also interpreted allegorically as “Pelagos’’ (=open sea), connotation of “width”; in addition, agitations attributed to it by this allegory. Today it is expressed as negative curvature (like aurora borealis).
Nyx is an affirmative Principle: it has the power/will to be dark; Chaos has neither this ability nor the opposite, according to the following part of the previous quotation. Nyx corresponds to the definitions of substance and movement as prime “eternity”, self-existence.
Chaos is not exactly a “substance” determining the being, it is “shapeless”. As an absolute denial, it anticipates its homologous absolute (Aether), to become subsistence.
Modern physics may be able to arrive at a “representation/image” of the NYX-Night, equivalent to dark matter, dark energy, particles-carriers of interaction etc. In philosophical terms, it can be defined as “Reason of matter”, according to Aristotle ‘’Reason (ΛΟΓΟΣ/ logos) is the quality- nature of the substance’’ and its antecedent is ‘’Arithmos’’ (ΑΡΙΘΜΟΣ = Number); because ‘’arithmos’’ – as power of harmony is called “proanousios” (existing before the substance- ΟΥΣΙΑ) [[xxvi]]. So, Reason-Logos and Number are not substances (by superiority).
Moreover, Nyx in the content of the En, has the position of Cognition. Cognition is equivalent to reasonable Mind. Philosophers refer as Mind to any transcendent subsistence, super-divine or divine, and the En (EN becomes from the word Noa: in Dorian Dialect=Source).
The unperceivable Mind (ΝΟΗΤΟΣ ΝΟΥΣ) is called ‘’Rough -rude Metis” (ΑΤΑΣΘΑΛΟΣ ΜΗΤΙΣ). A cross sectioned sphere presents three basic components: a core, a perimeter and the space between them. Considering them distinguished within the En, we name the core “Mind” (source of emission of every conception), the space between we name “Nyx” and the perimeter “Logos”. The original meaning of the term “logos” is amongst others “collect” and “cradle”. Nyx evaluates the Mind’s suggestions and forwards the most correct of them to Logos, where they gather.
 Philosophers described material universe based on the pre-existing model and the structure of the En. For instance: Leucippus and Democritus propose that the world is surrounded by a ‘’stretched tunic [….] or membrane”.
 The interaction of the Unexpressed Principle’s three “places” is a discontinuous procedure. Anaxagoras’ estimation about the Mind believing that pushing and mechanical activity effect within the world, is very close to that hypothesis.
Chronos- Chaos- Aether (ΧΡΟΝΟΣ- ΧΑΟΣ- ΑΙΘΗΡ)
The first event within Chronos is the mutual penetration and enforcement of the Principles who gave birth to him. These Principles are transformed and realized, as quality and conditions of the substance ‘’in naturae’’. Aether, is equivalent to Water, and Chaos, is equivalent to Matter. So, the Second inconceivable Trinity is formed, i.e. the duality Aether-Chaos, and the unit Chronos. The expulsion of the Duality’ s biggest part- (‘’quantity’’) from Chronos creates the conditions of space, by nature a continuum of Chronos.
Aether and Chaos are superior to the various transcendent ‘’systems’’. Their components compose the foundations of worlds i.e. of future ontological systems.
Chronos, as substance participating in the shape, is allegorically described as “waving snake”, with heads of Taurus (chthonic powers), and of Lions (solar celestial powers) on the sides, wigs on the shoulders and “face of God”, illustrating a push forward and the tendency towards the future that finally begins to show.
Water and Matter remain unexpressed within Chronos. Aether’s movement defines Chronos as a continuous, rhythmical, high-frequency flow of energy- dynamic and kinetic. The temporality of Chaos, on the contrary, reveals disorder and instability.
The current description of the negative curvature static field of vacuum resembles to the Chaos: ‘’Aether is the root of everything, Chaos has no beginning and no end” [[xxvii]].
Therefore, the ‘’Roots’’ (ΡΙΖΩΜΑΤΑ) are not the minimum sizes, analogous to “subatomic particles”, and their further division. They are, however, attributed to the structured ‘’tetractys’’ (ΤΕΤΡΑΚΤΥΣ) which gives shape to Nature. According to Aristotle ‘’Soul, is the first integrality (entelechy-ΕΝΤΕΛΕΧΕΙΑ) ”. Plato also in Timaeus refers to the structural elements of Soul.
Aether is called, amongst others, “wet Aether” i.e. matter imbued by water. [[xxviii]], Also, is called “Perfect element of Cosmos” (Orphic Hymn to Aether).
Desirable results will be achieved by the intensified interaction between Aether and Chaos, always attached to Chronos. Aether is the bearer of roots of ‘’Gignesthae’’ (evolution process), the fourth unit of the one Law/Logos.” ‘’The universal Law expands infinitely within the vast Aether and the fully shed light of Dawn” and Aether “sunk into matter” [[xxix]].
Under free conditions, Aether moves in waves. Spiral “River”, according to the dragon-Chronos model. Into positively curved space, it is considered as a stretched membrane that covers the Universe internally like a ‘’hymen”, and externally as a “shining” tunic, according to the example of Adrasteia. [[xxx]]. But its lack of motion within a restless environment derives from its divine nature.  It is extremely sensitive to every impulse, movement or any other behavior of matter and energy, where he adapts regulatory. Therefore, his immobilization is a primal or ultimate state.
Aether should not be identified with “any other” form of matter or energy, nor with fire or light. It is everywhere, dense or thin. Aether is identified with Zeus, as a substance, thanks to his “sticky-attractive’’ property. Zeus is transformed to Eros (God) when he creates according to Pherecydes. In the World of Gignesthai it is obvious that he is Eros unstoppable, in contrast with his calmness in the Inconceivable World [[xxxi]].
He acts as a pair with Spirit, so his compositions are not random but viable-dynamic. So, Zeus asks Nyx-Noesis:
“[...]Your Highness tell me how to hold the will of the gods with my works?’’
‘’[...]take all that revolves within Aether” [[xxxii]].
Plato in Timaeus after the description of the other four platonic solids says:
“[...]God projected into the Universe a fifth structure”. In “Epinomis” he clarifies: “There is fifth element after (Fire, Water, Air, Earth) [ …] and this is Aether” [[xxxiii]] and God used it for the Creation’’.
Aether adapts to every condition/impulse of matter, while it bears energies logically by places and qualities. Pure, it corresponds to the material form “plasma”. Plasma is the thunder, northern lights, the “soup of elementary particles in the Universe”, even melting rocks and minerals.
Aether, although it is correlated with the Higgs field, it is by no means a laboratory production. It is in absolute interdependence with Chronos, but within the world, as god, it acts “non-in tempore, sed cum tempore” (Augustine).
Space-time cannot “repeal” the substance or the conscience which, according to Hegel, “falls” inside ‘’our’’time. In Gödel’s theorem might be included the universal noesis (mind), within the true suggestions that he consider.
Modern physics reminds of the Orphic Cosmology: Weinberg assumes the existence of one Super-Universe and many “universes”[xxxiv].
Genesis of Cosmos (Ωon/Egg)
The First Principles denying the view ‘’principia essenti’’, advanced to ‘’principia fiendi’’ state, aiming at the accomplishment of a principium cognoscenti Whole.
“Orpheus says that the ΩΟΝ (‘’Egg’’) was born in the following way: the ancient matter, composed by four elements, being animated and infinite in its deep limits (Aether) streaming forever, millions of imperfect mixtures, was smashing that disorder. But at some point, all this infinite “pelagos” (Chaos and aetherical flows coming in it) started spinning like a whirlpool (ΙΛΙΓΞ) mixing all substances as if they were in a funnel…(cone). That whirlpool containing everything, attracted the Spirit which added logic to the content. Just like liquids form bubbles, a spheroid body was formed moving upwards. It looked like an egg and its speen kept it flying. After that from the received divine Spirit, within abundant Light, resulted a huge souled creature resembling to an egg. The Cosmos’’.
The saying that ‘’The infinite (Cosmos) was moving with undiminished spin’’ is mentioned sporadically in the orphic texts. Gödel believes the same….
So, the space where all physical worlds’ universes would be formed was created. The whole procedure is described in detail on fragment 3[[xxxv]]. However, it is interesting to give emphasis at:
1)      The thermal forces and their role in the shape and distinction of material qualities, and
2)      The distinction but also the strong relation between pure Aether and its absolute next, Air, as of common substance, bearer of Spirit.
The world of Ideas/The Light (ΦΩΣ)
a) At first, the Oon is full of free, cold radiation. However, gradually, a hyperthermic core of Aether and positive matter, pervaded by Spirit, is being formed.
b) While the core expands, it increases in heat so that, at some point, it exceeds the tolerance of the defined space. Therefore, the sphere cracks and the exceeding heat is released. Burning light and Spirit form a new world existing in between the Inconceivable World and the Perceivable World. That is the World of intelligible beings and especially the World of light; a light like the solar one but diffused all over that world and of total homeostatic temperature.
c) It is defined that the Oon’s core is the birthplace/the womb of the ‘’First- born God’’, Phanes (ΦΑΝΗΣ/ light), Metis (ΜΗΤΙΣ=Noesis-Mind), Erikepeos (ΗΡΙΚΕΠΑΙΟΣ= Eros, Life), who brings into being the "Aforementioned Light, that traversed Aether"(~ Cosmic rays) [[xxxvi]].
Its body is the source of the Ancestral Light -the common root essence of beings-, whose transformations are the source/origin of the energetic equilibrium/harmonic regulation and positive evolution of all, as well as matter itself.
The perceivable universes’ Suns, are material manifestations of Phanes, who is the progeny and ‘’mate’’ of Nyx (Night)-Noesis (Cognition) and primeval matter.
As for the light, the ultimate condition of existence, brought forth by Aether, is the proof of the ideal origin of things that we should aspire to and defend.
Perhaps this is the most essential influence that the modern world should receive from Ancient Greece.
Maria SIDERI










 NOTES

[i] THEOLOGY (SCIENCE). The first philosophy about the Being. Aristotle’s Metaphysica 10.7.7
[ii] THE ORPHIC THEORY- ORPHICORUM FRAGMENTA. Otto Kern Coll. Translation and analytic comments by Maria SIDERI. Ed. PYRINOS COSMOS- Athens Greece. In the following notes the references to the extracts of this book will be noted only by their number.
[iii] Extract 51.
[iv] Extract 1
[v] Extract 27
[vi] Kern introduction page 98 Greek ed.
[vii] Extract 51
[viii] Aristotle’s ‘’About Heaven’’ C1
[ix] Phanes name of a God of Orphic religious mysteries. The name means someone who shines.
[x] Extract 20
[xi] Extract 18
[xii] Extract 20
[xiii] Extract 32
[xiv] M.Plank
[xv] Extract 43
[xvi] Extract 34
[xvii] Extract 42
[xviii] Extract 47
[xix] Extract 43
[xx] Zenon Kitieus Physicq 172 (Stoicorum fragm. Coll Ioannes Ab Arnim Ed. prima Stutgard)
[xxi] Extract 13
[xxii] Parmenides extract 298. The Pre-Socratic Philosophers. G.S.Kirk- J.E. Raven-M. Schofield Gr ed. MIET
[xxiii] Plato Timaeus 48
[xxiv] Extract 1
[xxv] Extract 13
[xxvi] Extract 112 (proanoussios means a being existing before the oussia)
[xxvii] Extract 13
[xxviii] Extract 13
[xxix] Empedocles 413, 372 Pre-Socratic Philosophers MIET as above.
[xxx] See Theory of membranes. Also Huygens.
[xxxi] Extract 31
[xxxii] Extract 109
[xxxiii]  Platon, Epinomis 981c, 982a
[xxxiv] Interview ‘’ The Universe is it pre-scheduled?’’  PHYSICS 4 u jr newspaper TO VIMA .30/10/2016
[xxxv] Extract 3
[xxxvi] Extract 12 


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